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Citation Style Guides: APA Citation Style

APA Style Manual in Print


Guide to APA Style Bibliographic Citations

General Guidelines

  • Your list of references should begin on a separate page with the title "References" and appear at the end of your paper.
  • Arrange entries alphabetically, using the last name of the author. If no author is given, alphabetize by the title, eliminating any initial A, An, or The.
  • Begin each entry at the left margin. If the information requires more than one line, indent the following lines one-half inch from the left margin, known as a 'hanging indent'.
  • Double-space within each entry, and between each entry.
  • Follow carefully the punctuation, underlining, and capitalization in the examples. 

Book with one author:

Author's last name, A. A. (date of publication). Title italicized lowercase except first word : And first word after a colon. Publishing Company.


Pater, R. (2021). Caps lock : How capitalism took hold of graphic design, and how to escape from it. Valiz. 


Book with two authors:

First author's last name, A.A., & Second author's last name, B.B. (date of publication). Title italicized lowercase except first word : And first word       after a colon. Publishing Company.


Harmon, S. K., & Kennon, K. E. (2008). The codes guidebook for interiors.

      John Wiley & Sons.


Book with an editor:

Editor's last name, A. A. (Ed.). (Publication date). Title italicized lowercase except first word : And first word after a colon.

      Publishing Company.


Newland, J. N. (Ed.). (1992). Johnson, Kaufmann, Coate: Partners in the California

      style. Scripps College.


Article or chapter in an edited book: This also includes essays and short stories in anthologies.

Author's last name, A.A. (Publication date). Title of entry. In Editor's First initial Middle initial Last

      name (Ed.), Book title italicized lowercase except first word : And first word after a colon (page numbers). Publishing Company.


Orwell, G. (1994). Such, such were the joys. In P. Lopate (Ed.), The art of the personal essay: An

      anthology from the classical era to the present (pp. 268-302). Anchor-Doubleday.


Entry in an online dictionary, encyclopedia or thesaurus  

Group Author. (Publication year). The entry term. In Title of reference work. Retrieved on Month day, year fromURL  

No author? Start with the term as in the first example below.

Also, because online reference sources can be updated but changes might not be archived, APA 7th prescribes a 'retrieved on' date uniquely for this source type.


Modernism. (2010). In E. Guter, Aesthetics A-Z (1st ed.). Edinburgh University Press.Retrieved on February 26, 2024,         from

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Semantics. In dictionary. Retrieved January 4, 2020, from


Entry in a print dictionary, encyclopedia or thesaurus

Author last name, A. A. (year). Entry term. In Title of book lowercase except first word and : First word after a colon (edition, page number for entry). Publisher.


Wilson, K. M., & Margolis, N. (2004). Dowry. In Women in the middle ages : An encyclopedia (vol. 1, p. 264). Greenwood Press.


 Article from a newspaper (digital):

Author's last name, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article in lowercase. Newspaper Name in Uppercase Italics.

      Ezproxy URL


Small, Z. (2023, May 06). How 'The Legend of Zelda' changed the game. The New York Times.

Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times


Article from a Woodbury database:

Author last name, A. A., Author last name, B. B., & Author last name, C. C. (year). Article title in lowercase except first word and: First word after a colon. Periodical Title Italicized Uppercase, volume (issue), page numbers. Exproxy URL


Notarile, C. (2024). Sound and vision: The art of the music video. American Cinematographer, 105, 36-47.


Article from a magazine:

Author's last name, A. A. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of article.

      Title of Magazine in Italics, page numbers.URL (not page numbers) if a digital source.


Mezrich, B. (2003, May). To live and die in L.A. Wired, 11(5), 131-135.

Schulman, M. (2019, September 9). Superfans: A love story. The New Yorker



Author's last name, A. A. (Date of page). Title of the web page. Title of the website. complete URL with no period at the end


Robinson, C. (2024, February 23). Nowhere to go but up: Ukraine animation carries on two years after Russian invasion. Cartoon Brew.



More website citation examples


Please visit or pages 313 - 352 of the APA Publication

Manual (7th edition) for more detailed information concerning electronic resources.